Others, including E.
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Thompson , claim that Methodism, though a small movement, had a politically regressive effect on efforts for reform. Eric Hobsbawm claims that Methodism was not a large enough movement to have been able to prevent revolution. Alan Gilbert suggests that Methodism's supposed antiradicalism has been misunderstood by historians, suggesting that it was seen as a socially deviant movement and the majority of Methodists were moderate radicals.
Early in the 19th century the Scottish minister Thomas Chalmers had an important influence on the evangelical revival movement. Chalmers began life as a moderate in the Church of Scotland and an opponent of evangelicalism. During the winter of —04, he presented a series of lectures that outlined a reconciliation of the apparent incompatibility between the Genesis account of creation and the findings of the developing science of geology.
However, by he had become an evangelical and would eventually lead the Disruption of that resulted in the formation of the Free Church of Scotland.
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The Plymouth Brethren started with John Nelson Darby at this time, a result of disillusionment with denominationalism and clerical hierarchy. The established churches too, were influenced by the evangelical revival. However its objective was to renew the Church of England by reviving certain Roman Catholic doctrines and rituals, thus distancing themselves as far as possible from evangelical enthusiasm. Many say that Australia has never been visited by a genuine religious revival as in other countries, but that is not entirely true.
The effect of the Great Awakening of —59 was also felt in Australia fostered mainly by the Methodist Church, one of the greatest forces for evangelism and missions the world has ever seen. Evangelical fervor was its height during the s with visiting evangelists, R.
Torrey, Wilbur J. Chapman, Charles M.
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Alexander and others winning many converts in their Crusades. Evangelicalism arrived from Britain as an already mature movement characterized by commonly shared attitudes toward doctrine, spiritual life, and sacred history. Any attempt to periodize the history of the movement in Australia should examine the role of revivalism and the oscillations between emphases on personal holiness and social concerns. Historians have examined the revival movements in Scandinavia, with special attention to the growth of organizations, church history, missionary history, social class and religion, women in religious movements, religious geography, the lay movements as counter culture, ethnology, and social force.
Some historians approach it as a cult process since the revivalist movements tend to rise and fall. Others study it as minority discontent with the status quo or, after the revivalists gain wide acceptance, as a majority that tends to impose its own standards. In the U. Charles Finney — was a key leader of the evangelical revival movement in America. From onwards he conducted revival meetings across many north-eastern states and won many converts. For him, a revival was not a miracle but a change of mindset that was ultimately a matter for the individual's free will.
His revival meetings created anxiety in a penitent's mind that one could only save his or her soul by submission to the will of God, as illustrated by Finney's quotations from the Bible. Finney also conducted revival meetings in England, first in and later to England and Scotland in — In New England , the renewed interest in religion inspired a wave of social activism, including abolitionism. It had been here, in upstate New York 's ' Burned-over district ,' in the s and 20s, that the religious fervor acquired a fevered pitch, and this intense revivalism spawned an authentically new American sect — which ultimately would become a major worldwide religion — Mormonism , founded by a young seeker of Christian primitivism , Joseph Smith, Jr — It also introduced into America a new form of religious expression — the Scottish camp meeting.
In German-speaking Europe Lutheran Johann Georg Hamann —88 was a leading light in the new wave of evangelicalism, the Erweckung , which spread across the land, cross-fertilizing with British movements. The movement began in the Francophone world in connection with a circle of pastors and seminarians at French-speaking Protestant theological seminaries in Geneva , Switzerland and Montauban , France, influenced inter alia by the visit of Scottish Christian Robert Haldane in — Several missionary societies were founded to support this work, such as the British-based Continental society and the indigenous Geneva Evangelical Society.
The movement was politically influential and actively involved in improving society, and — at the end of the 19th century — brought about anti-revolutionary and Christian historical parties. At the same time in Britain figures such as William Wilberforce and Thomas Chalmers were active, although they are not considered to be part of the Le Reveil movement. Significant names include Dwight L. Moody , Ira D.
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Representative was Rev. He brought in the converts by the score, most notably in the revivals in Canada West — His technique combined restrained emotionalism with a clear call for personal commitment, coupled with follow-up action to organize support from converts. It was a time when the Holiness Movement caught fire, with the revitalized interest of men and women in Christian perfection.
Caughey successfully bridged the gap between the style of earlier camp meetings and the needs of more sophisticated Methodist congregations in the emerging cities. In England the Keswick Convention movement began out of the British Holiness movement , encouraging a lifestyle of holiness , unity and prayer. On 21 September Jeremiah Lanphier, a businessman, began a series of prayer meetings in New York.
By the beginning of the congregation was crowded, often with a majority of businessmen. Newspapers reported that over 6, were attending various prayer meetings in New York, and 6, in Pittsburgh. Daily prayer meetings were held in Washington, D. Other cities followed the pattern. Soon, a common mid-day sign on business premises read, "We will re-open at the close of the prayer meeting". By May, 50, of New York's , people were new converts. Finney wrote of this revival, "This winter of —58 will be remembered as the time when a great revival prevailed.
It swept across the land with such power that at the time it was estimated that not less than 50, conversions occurred weekly. In , four young Irishmen began a weekly prayer meeting in the village of Connor near Ballymena. See also Ahoghill. This meeting is generally regarded as the origin of the Ulster Revival that swept through most of the towns and villages throughout Ulster and in due course brought , converts into the churches.
It was also ignited by a young preacher, Henry Grattan Guinness , who drew thousands at a time to hear his preaching. So great was the interest in the American movement that in the Presbyterian General Assembly meeting in Derry appointed two of their ministers, Dr. William Gibson and Rev. William McClure to visit North America. Upon their return the two deputies had many public opportunities to bear testimony to what they had witnessed of the remarkable outpouring of the Spirit across the Atlantic, and to fan the flames in their homeland yet further.
Such was the strength of emotion generated by the preachers' oratory that many made spontaneous confessions seeking to be relieved of their burdens of sin. Others suffered complete nervous breakdown. The most recent Great Awakening onwards had its roots in the holiness movement which had developed in the late 19th century.
The Pentecostal revival movement began, out of a passion for more power and a greater outpouring of the Holy Spirit. News of this revival travelled fast, igniting a passion for prayer and an expectation that God would work in similar ways elsewhere. Torrey and Alexander were involved in the beginnings of the great Welsh revival The rebaibal , as it is known in Tok Pisin , had begun in the Solomon Islands and reached the Urapmin people by The Urapmin were particularly zealous in rejecting their traditional beliefs, and adopted a form of Charismatic Christianity based on Baptist Christianity.
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The Urapmin innovated the practices of spirit possession known as the "spirit disko" and ritualized confessions, the latter being especially atypical for Protestantism. With a flatbed press and one typesetting machine, Kelton B. Miller started publishing the Eagle in , succeeded by sons Pete and Don in , and by grandsons Mark and Michael in the s. Throughout, the Millers poured money into the paper, turning a modest profit even as they maintained an unusually large staff for a paper with a circulation, at its peak, of about 35, Over time, the Eagle earned a national reputation for being tough and meticulous in its reporting.
The Eagle became a training ground for talented young journalists. The paper had a real hold on the community. Soon after, General Electric, which once employed 13, people at its Pittsfield plant, announced mass layoffs, devastating the local economy. The Eagle continued to do good journalism, but the staff gradually shrunk; in its heyday, there were close to 60 people in the newsroom, well above the industry standard for a paper its size.
The contraction did not go unnoticed by readers and advertisers. By , when Rutberg was contemplating his next step, the Eagle had lost much of its luster. I want this business to thrive. But people were picking up the Eagle at the end of their driveway and wondering what they were paying for. Freeman, who seldom gives interviews, declined to comment for this story. Even Singleton, who had a reputation as an enthusiastic cost-cutter, questions whether Alden Global chopped too much from its newspapers, including the Eagle.
We cared. I particularly cared about the Eagle. Nonetheless, he started making calls, beginning with Hans Morris, managing partner of the venture capital firm Nyca Partners and a former president of Visa. An inveterate newspaper reader who has owned a house in Stockbridge for 30 years, Morris agreed to meet Rutberg for coffee. The notion of a local owner resuscitating the Eagle intrigued him, but Morris was hesitant to encourage Rutberg. There was, but the two sides were far apart on price. His group also bought back the Vermont papers formerly owned by the Millers: the Bennington Banner, the Brattleboro Reformer, and the Manchester Journal.