Therefore, this author [ 10 , 11 ] believes that, through the experience in Spain over recent years, together with the knowledge resulting from numerous pieces of research on this matter, some elements that could hinder interculturality should be considered when intending to develop it at schools. What is clear is that words currently prevail over practice in the intercultural context and that, as [ 13 ] argued, schools and other educational institutions are becoming incubators of competitive individualism and individual mobility.
According to [ 14 ], with the economic crisis arose another crisis, among other issues: the public sphere could not control private interests, which acted as if no rules or regulations existed. In such a context, segregating attitudes and practices abruptly appeared. But schools should not follow such dynamics: they should not ignore individual tendencies, and they are responsible for acting against those tendencies in classes and in direct connection with the surrounding community.
As a guarantee of freedom, sections 1. However, this concept was subsequently legally construed in the broader sense, with multiculturalism being an appropriate framework for personal and individual development.
Along the same lines, article 82 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union recognises cultural, religious and linguistic diversity as values. Furthermore, Spain has rejected the French assimilationist model, both in legal and practical spheres, and the only way to integrate in Spain is through intercultural models. Indeed, the importance of the educational treatment of multiculturalism [ 15 ] derives from this legal framework. Hence, from a legal point of view, cultural diversity is a right, and its development corresponds to public policies in a Welfare State.
The European Union itself [ 16 ] following the Convention on the Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression, defined interculturality as the equal presence and interaction of diverse cultures, as a real possibility to generate hybrid and shared cultures, as an intercultural dialogue from mutual respect. The Spanish legal system also recognises it as one of the aims of the education system section 2. For all of the above, [ 15 ] pushes for what he calls democratic constitutional miscegenation , which comprises both legal and regulatory levels, and the materialisation in specific social policies.
It is called a cultural melting pot within the Spanish constitutional framework, and a permanent lever for restoring a democratic system. Although the aim of schools in most Nation States was educating citizens for them to internationalise national values, and schools assumed that it was necessary to assimilate the dominant culture to develop a sense of national belonging, this aim is obsolete today in a world where nationalism and globalisation coexist in global tension. Nor can schools assume their traditional role as an agent of socialisation. However, now individuals are isolated in the face of an increasingly anonymous community.
Social insertion seems more an individual rather than a collective question. It falls to education, then, to create the sense of belonging, to develop the ability to articulate complex identities with belonging to multiple spheres. In this sense, the role of the school remains key to developing the plural feeling of belonging, by activating mechanisms that foster the construction of democratic educational experiences at a community level. Therefore, [ 18 ] opts for schooling that is:. Public, inclusive, democratic, secular, respectful of the diversity and singularity of each person, that takes into account difference and promotes an equality that is intercultural and mixed, coeducational, innovative, liberating, solidary and committed to the issues, hopes and joys of humanity, that feed the dreams of human fulfilment in every single person.
Escuela de Español en Salamanca | Letra Hispanica
Nevertheless, it is important to bear in mind [ 19 ] words, which say that even in times of change, the inertia of the past and continuity remain a constant within educational systems. This means that interculturality in schools will not be produced by mere contact between pupils from different cultures, but that it is also necessary to be clear about the principles that inspire them, to design a coherent project with those principles, and to develop that project jointly and responsibly at a community level.
As [ 20 ] explains, how the school space is organised will be paramount; that educational ecosystem will rely on the fact that open interactions with others and the inclusion of everyone happen, or the opposite. Therefore, the starting point for an intercultural project in schools is knowing the action context, including the educational centre with all its features. It is also true that the teaching process at school, even if critical, has a limited scope due to the power of other social instances. In contrast, this author states that even though schools reproduce the dominant ideology, it is also true that it is possible to coordinate resistance spaces from schools.
Associative justice: To establish solid networks of social capital among schools, families and the community. This implies the selection, preparation and development of a syllabus that silences no-one [ 26 ]; a syllabus that contributes to mutual growth, that avoids segregating answers focused on the deficit, and that assures equality, quality and social cohesion [ 20 ].
It is important to bear in mind that one of the objectives of the intercultural syllabus is that pupils can progressively acquire the knowledge, attitudes and skills of responsible citizens in a culturally diverse world [ 27 ].
Introducción a la lingüística hispánica actual: teoría y práctica
But most current European syllabuses have not been designed from an intercultural perspective, nor have they overcome their Eurocentric view [ 28 ]. This fact currently makes it obligatory to develop universal and intercultural syllabuses that consider other cultures, which would benefit everyone and would improve and broaden knowledge, would train better citizens, and would better prepare pupils for a globalised world [ 29 ]. Considering this, an educational centre without an Intercultural Educational Programme will be a fertile breeding ground for segregating processes and exclusion dynamics [ 20 ].
Nevertheless, in reality it is said that School Education Programmes PECs in Spanish are usually mere bureaucratic documents and declarations of intent, rather than materials for thinking orientated to classroom practice. This should not be the case, given that developing good practices will rely on work within the school and its specific context, and on the programme designed by everyone [ 26 ].
Despite criticism, schools remain an extraordinary tool to foster interculturality, the culture of peace, and to ensure equal opportunities from the perspective of an open, democratic and plural society [ 30 ]. As [ 31 ] state, today schools are still an indispensable social agent to educate on values of participation and social justice and to insist on the idea that the intercultural perspective is, above all, a way to interact and discuss that does not arise spontaneously, but must be laboriously built, educated and conquered against stereotypes and prejudices.
Hence, intercultural education leads to a radical renewal of schools. To summarise, we can talk, write and think about interculturality, but we must always look to schools to lay the foundations. Teachers and families must be the ones to act as engineers, building intercultural bridges in multicultural spaces. Intercultural education should be understood as a necessity rather than a possibility [ 32 ], backed up by an ideological approach that supports and inspires it, based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The evidence provided by research shows that the intercultural perspective is not permeating educational processes, especially including but not limited to the educational context [ 33 ].
This name refers to the organisation that analyses the implementation of European Union policies on European immigration, in order to assess the basic compulsory education of foreign pupils, and to propose improved alternatives. What generally happens is that, as with other legislation and principles, that right is cut off or it is just breached, which has two main consequences, in Spain at least [ 34 ] pp. Therefore, there are Disarticulation: There are still difficulties for the access and progression of pupils from foreign origins; few go up the levels and they show high rates of school dropout at A-level Bachillerato in Spain , according to [ 36 ].
Moreover, the ability of the current education system to provide a quality education for everyone, without discrimination, is called into question. There are insufficient means to foster educational inclusion, individualised attention and family-school cooperation [ 34 ]. Among the alternatives offered by the SIRIUS network, those that refer to the school-environment relationship are notable.
The Delors Report [ 38 ] expressed how important community participation and commitment with schools are:. With regard to centre autonomy, schools should not operate without other social instances, but act as catalysts in the construction of community social networks that remove them from their traditional isolation.
There are different models that back up the key importance of family and community participation in educational processes. Among the examples provided by [ 39 ] pp. The programme includes a support team for teachers, and a team of relatives that strengthen community participation by volunteering in schools, becoming involved in the daily life of the school, giving support in classrooms, preparing reinforcement activities outside the school timetable, and the like.
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